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Annotated Bibliography on Bullying

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    Annotated bibliographies can be some of the most challenging things you'll ever have to write in college. Because they are so research intensive and require in-depth technical analysis on individual works, it is easy to see why buying an annotated bibliography can be the best option when you need an example to get started with. Otherwise, we hope you enjoy this sample annotated bibliography on bullying. It’s really insightful and paints a great picture of how to properly write one of these documents. 

    Annotated Bibliography and Proposal: The Bullying Problem

    Undheim, Anne Mari and Sund, Anne Mari. “Bullying—a hidden factor behind somatic symptoms?.” Acta Paediatrica. Vol. 100, Issue 4. Karolinska University Hospital, April 2001. 496-498.

    This source is not very useful. The title was promising because it alluded to the idea that bullying can have psychological effects that manifest as actual physical ailments. This would have been an interesting aspect to explore, since the source itself notes that: “In a cross-national study of 113 000 students between the ages of 11 and 15, from 25 countries, approximately 11% were identified as victims and an average of 10% as bullies.” (496). I wonder why such a ripe topic for exploration was barely looked into by these authors. They are writing in a pediatrics journal. It would just make sense to research psychosomatic effects of bullying, no matter whether it’s from a physical or online source. But instead they regurgitate the same old information: “Many children are less likely to tell their paediatrician about being bullied than about a somatic symptom like headaches, difficulty sleeping, abdominal pain, bedwetting feeling tired and anxiety. Yet, these very symptoms might be the consequences of bullying. In some cases, being bullied is also the reason the child wants to avoid going to school entirely. Also, unexplained bruises or traumas should raise the paediatrician’s suspicion about bullying.” (497). That is far from providing an elucidating revelation on the subject. But even though it disappointed me, I can cite this source to highlight how little this area is being studied. If stress can kill an office worker, what physical effects can bullying lay in to our nation’s children? And vice-versa, how does being the bully affect people? Are there physical reactions to such things? I will keep an eye out for this as I continue to find sources.

    Adams, Frank D. and Lawrence, Gloria J. “Bullying Victims: The Effects Last Into College.” American Secondary Education. Vol. 40, Issue 1. September 2011. 4-13.

    This source is interesting because it looks at bullying with a scientific eye. Even the format of the published paper supports this. The methods used to collect the data are delineated, definitions are specified, and there are conclusions based on the disclosed data results. An interesting quote from this paper is: “The Center for Disease Control (2011) reported bullying continues to occur at all levels within the educational environment.” (9). It is interesting because the Center for Disease Control has done a study on bullying, which suggests that it is a negative phenomenon that spreads in an outbreak pattern. More research regarding “bullying as contagious illness” could yield interesting results. Another excerpt from this paper: “These data do not support previous data suggesting that bullying decreases as grade level increases to approximately 5% in the 9th grade (Olweus, 1999).” (8). It would seem that this study scientifically disproves the idea that bullying “sorts itself out” in the long run. In fact, the social impact can last for a lifetime.

    Gillespie, Alisdair A.. “Cyber-bullying and Harassment of Teenagers: The Legal Response” Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law. Vol. 28, No 2. June 2006. 123-136.

    This source is interesting because it describes various cyber-activities that can be easily construed as banal humor. We’ve all heard of the “for a good time call…” joke where you write a person’s phone number on a wall. But in this paper, it is labeled as bullying: “The NCH also found bullying taking place via mobile telephone. This can be a serious form of bullying; where, for example, the details of a person’s telephone number are mis-used by placing the telephone number on internet websites that advertise sexual services.” (124). If the authors are suggesting that this behavior is always bullying, my reaction will firmly cemented into the “eye-roll” category. Context becomes excruciatingly urgent in matters such as these. Of course we should protect children from any intensely misguided individuals who would ever consider targeting them like this, but we should also consider that this type of behavior in its lighter forms is an integral part of certain groups’ socio-dynamics. That is not to advocate this behavior, but to heavily mandate it would also be to advocate the removal of freedoms from those who are willing. This inspired the thought that bullying is not bullying unless it is unwanted. With all these new delineations of what is and is not OK, are we redefining social interaction for this brave new millennial world? Another example of “bullying vs. joking” lies in this quote: “The abuse of images is not restricted to the taking of photographs. Other examples include cases where a person (frequently an adult) will take an innocent picture (often posted by the victim) and use graphic manipulation software to morph it onto a pornographic picture.” (124-125). Making legal proclamations around these scenarios should be done with a generous heap of qualifying language. 

    Li, Quing. “Cyberbullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences” School Psychology International. Vol. 27, Issue 2. May 2006. 157-170.

    This paper’s study results reveal that: “Over half of the students knew someone who had been cyberbullied. Further, over a quarter of the students in this study experienced being cyberbullied, and one in six students had cyberbullied others.” (165). And it also states: “This study shows that, just like in the real world, the vast majority of the students who were cyberbullied or knew someone being cyberbullied chose to stay quiet rather than to inform adults.” (164-165). From the title, gender differences in cyberbullying and regular bullying are studied, but the two above quotes are of interest because it sets a baseline of what is known to occur in the field. The paper also goes on to explain that the numbers are up from earlier studies, suggesting that this type of problem is on the rise, and thus should be addressed so as to keep children emotionally healthy and safe.

    Chibbaro, Julia S.. “School Counselors and the Cyberbully: Interventions and Implications” Professional School Counseling. Vol. 11, Issue 1. October 2007. 65-67.

    “Traditional bullying behaviors can be categorized into two broad categories of behavior, direct and indirect (Quiroz, Arnette, & Stephens, 2006). Direct bullying tends to be more physical in nature than indirect bullying behavior and includes behaviors such as hitting, tripping, shoving, threatening verbally, or stabbing. Indirect and direct bullying includes behaviors such as excluding, spreading rumors, or blackmailing (Willard, 2006a). Male bullies tend to engage in direct bullying whereas female bullies tend to engage in indirect bullying (Crawford; Hazier, 2006; Quiroz et al.).”  (66)

    “Cyberbullying behaviors also can be both indirect and indirect, and Willard (2006a) provided examples of each. Flaming is an indirect form of cyberbullying and was defined by Willard as an argument between two people that includes rude and vulgar language, insults, and threats. Examples of direct cyberbullying include harassment, exclusion, and denigration. An individual victimized by online harassment may receive constant hurtful messaging through various forms of technology. Online exclusion occurs when victims are rejected from their peer group and left out of technological communications. Finally, denigration occurs most frequently by students against school employees. Students who are angry with an administrator or teacher may create a Web site designed to ridicule their chosen victim. One of the primary purposes of denigration is to damage the reputation of the victim (Long, 2006).” (66)

    Both of the above quotes are quite lengthy and I would break them up when writing the paper, but I wanted to include them in their whole forms because these define even further the differences and similarities of cyber bullying. It also seems obvious when reading these definitions that bullying and cyber bullying are used to encapsulate a whole range of behaviors that are already identified negatively and have laws pertaining to them. I feel that victims are justified in seeking redress for the ills done to them, but I also find this “new” danger and it’s classification and legalization alarming as it can easily pendulum swing into being an abusive tool of the legal system. These quotes are useful in that they provide firm definitions to argue against. We have laws against libel, slander, harassment, stalking, and assault. I wonder why there is this sense of “newness” around cyberbullying, as opposed to simply considering the “old” negative behaviors in this new context of a digital world.

    Wagner, Cynthia G.. “Beating the Cyberbullies.” Futurist. Vol. 42, Issue 5. October 2008. 14-15.

    This article defines cyber bullying from a different angle. It provides the same facts available from many sources, but it also brings new insight by considering the online habits of girls vs. boys. And it identifies the obvious and odious difference between regular bullying and cyber bullying: “Cyberbullying can be far more insidious than traditional bullying, because there is no escape from it, says Muscari. Cyberbullying runs 24/7 and, like many other phenomena today, is global in its reach.” (14) This article also offers insight into why cyber bullying is so much more of a problem than its non-digital counterpart. And it offers advice on how to combat the problem: “But one psychiatrist argues that telling the authorities about a cyberbullying problem might not be a kid’s best strategy. In fact, school psychologist and speaker Izzy Kalman says anti-bully programs and policies often make the problem worse. ‘Don’t try to get kids in trouble for cyberbullying,’ says Kalman, whose Bullies to Buddies Web site offers a wealth of tips for youth, parents, teachers, and others. ‘If you tell the school or the police on them, they will hate you and want to be even meaner to you.’.” (15) This advice has its pros and cons, but the article is packed with information that can be used to reference and spring ideas from. 

    Schmidt, Mike. “Bad Advice on Stopping Cyberbullies.” Futurist. Vol. 43, Issue 1. Jan/Feb 2009. 4.

    This source is a letter to the editor of Futurist Magazine. In it, Mike Schmidt reacts to Cynthia G. Wagner’s article “Beating the Cyberbullies.” He consider’s psychiatrist Izzy kalman’s anti-bullying advice to be ridiculous. “Kalman’s advice teaches children not to empower themselves or establish boundaries with others. It also impinges the societal development of mature social interaction.” (4). These are salient points that bring up one of the foundational issues with bullying. Is it a matter of sucking it up and dealing with it? Or is it a systemic problem that should be dealt with officially. He then proposes a solution of his own: “The process should have various points of escalation from informing ignorant bullies of the consequences of their actions to legally sticking it to them.” (4). Here the solution is more measured. Start with a warning and escalate. This puts responsibility on the individual while also leaning on official intervention when necessary.

    Wagner, Cynthia G.. “Social Media Backlash against Brands ‘not Cyber Bullying’.” B&T. November 2012. <http://www.bandt.com/au/news/advertising/social-media-backlash-agianst-brands-not-cyber-bul>.

    This article distinguishes a difference in cyber bullying between people and brands.“Bain [Alina Bain, Australian Association of National Advertisers’ CEO] told the meeting unlike cyber bullying against people brands should be prepared for it… ‘Brands must accept there is a level of responsibility that has to attach to the social media space, a responsibility in line with community standards’” (web) Even though this doesn’t relate to cyber bullying in school children it is interesting that a final decision has been made on the matter as relating to brands and corporate interests (in Australia anyway). It’s up to the victim to get it sorted out: “ZenithOptimedia’s chief innovation officer Aaron Michie said the ASB ruling was actually helpful, as it means brands have to spend more time properly monitoring the channels.” (web) And so here, half a world away, an Australian executive is adding to the anti-bullying tactics. Changing to fit the desired needs of those around you is another way to fight the problem. It seems dark to admit this as a solution, but it cannot be denied that victims of bullying are often those who can be singled out. Putting a positive spin on the abuse, using it as a lesson on how to conform—well, no matter if you think it’s inhumane or cruel, it’s an interesting view that will further add depth to the examination of this current social problem. 

    Topic Introduction and Search Strategy

    Cyber bullying is a phrase that I have been familiar with for several years, but I have never actually taken the time to research it in depth before. It’s one of those things that exist in the periphery of everyday life. Until now, I have not thought much about the subject. Because of my lack of experience in the topic, I have approached it with a broad search criterion—a shotgun approach, if you will—but after I spent some time looking around, I found that the subject had some interesting qualities, these qualities guided my search and my inspiration for this paper.

    Cyber bullying is an old world problem, dressed up in fancy new digital clothes (mainly because of social media). It is basically the action of making someone feel outcast, unsafe, unloved, or unaccepted via digital or telephonic means. The only real difference between cyber bullying and regular bullying is that the internet is open twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, and it can be entirely anonymous for the most part. This offers an unseen and constant threat to victims of online bullying, which makes it unable to get away from.

    In researching this topic, I was at first not able to get away from the argument that it was a very serious topic that should have a zero tolerance policy. But there is also the fact that knee jerk reaction to something that was a “silly prank” does not help resolve the issue either. It simply shifts victimhood to the bully who didn’t understand. 

    I wondered if my point of view was valid, or if I was simply crueler than I had realized. I feel it is right to stand up against injustice, but not to the point of creating an overly serious climate where nothing can be done in jest at all. Humor is a strong and valuable release valve that can be used to deflate pressured situations and address problems with a light touch. But it can also be used as an emotional weapon that can drive people to the brink. This is why any “100% solution” to cyber bullying, free of any sort of specific context, is a very dangerous solution.

    There needs to be specific care paid to how the society adjudicates its responses to this. And there also needs to be responsibility laid on the victims as well. By enabling victims to deal with the situation in the many ways available to them, society will combat the problem before it starts. 

    The planned paper will provide a baseline definition of what cyber bullying is, examine its effects, and examine the complicated web of arguments that people offer up as justifications and solutions to this problem, and then a proposed series of solutions based on a synthesis of all arguments involved with be presented at the end. 

     
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    Ultius, Inc. "Annotated Bibliography on Bullying." Ultius | Custom Writing and Editing Services. Ultius Blog, 16 Jul. 2013. http://www.ultius.com/ultius-blog/entry/annotated-bibliography-on-bullying.html

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