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Chicago (CMS) Citation Style Overview

Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is a usually used for history papers and can be a bit trickier. Please make sure to differentiate whether the client asks for footnotes or endnotes. Footnotes belong at the bottom of each page and endnotes are at the end of the paper. Please refer to the uploaded guides for a detailed explanation of all formatting guidelines.

Footnotes are used by authors to cite a source at the bottom of each page. This method makes is simpler for readers to understand where a given source comes from. However, papers with a large number of footnotes may distract the reader from the material on the page and occupy too much space. Endnotes are citations at the end of a paper, and can help save space. However, they make it more difficult for readers to easily access your sources.  

Title Page

The Title Page of a CMS paper must have a centered title one third of the way down the page, the author's name and applicable class information, and date. 

Chicago Style Title Page

 

Bibliography/References

The Bibliography/References page of a CMS paper must be labeled either "Bibliography" (if you use Notes & Bibliography style), or "References" (if you use Author-date style). Leave two blank lines between "References" and the first entry of the page, and leave a single blank link between entries. With author's names in inverse order, alphabetize them. 

Chicago Style References Page

Footnotes

CMS footnotes are the cornerstone of the citation style, and contain important information and explanations regarding the sources used in the paper.

CMS uses footnotes at the bottom of every page to list sources used in the text above. These are an easy and effective way of informing readers of where you got your information and makes it simple for them to make notes on where to find future reading. Footnotes must be numbered across the entire paper (do not start numbering a new page with "1").

This is an example of Chicago style footnotes.

Chicago Style Footnote Example

CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book, One Author)1. Granger G. Powell, Diversity in Universities: A History (Las Vegas: Ultius Publishing, 2004), 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book, Shortened Citation2. Powell, Diversity in Universities, 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book (Two or Three Authors) 3. Granger G. Powell and George Bernard Shaw, Diversity in Universities: A History (Las Vegas: Ultius Publishing, 2004), 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book (Four or More Authors)4. Granger G. Powell et al., Diversity in Universities: A History (Las Vegas: Ultius Publishing, 2004), 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book (No Known Author)5. Diversity in Universities: A History (Las Vegas: Ultius Publishing, 2004), 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book (Multivolume Works)6. Granger G. Powell, Diversity in Universities: A History, vol. 2 (Las Vegas: Ultius Publishing, 2004), 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Printed Book (Encyclopedia)7. Encyclopedia of Diversity in Universities, 15th ed., s.v. "Affirmative Action"
CMS Footnote Example: Article in a Scholarly Journal8. Granger G. Powell, "Affirmative Action in California", Diversity in Universities: A History 94, no. 1 (2004), 65. 
CMS Footnote Example: Online Source (e-Book)9. Granger G. Powell, Diversity in Universities: A History (Las Vegas: Ultius Publishing, 2004), 65,http://www.ultius.com/help.html (accessed 8/16/2014)
CMS Footnote Example: Online Source (Article)10. Granger G. Powell, "Affirmative Action in California", Ultius Monthly, 16 Dec. 2013, http://www.ultius.com/help.html (accessed 8/16/2014).
CMS Footnote Example: Online Source (Encyclopedia)11. "Affirmative Action in California", Ultius Encyclopedia (online; Granger D. Powell, 2004), http://www.ultius.com/help.html (accessed 8/16/2014).
CMS Footnote Example: Online Source (Primary Source Reproduced Online)12. Granger D. Powell, Diversity in Universities (1776), excerpted, Ultius Marketing Department, http://www.ultius.com/help.html (accessed 8/16/2014), para. 2. 

Endnotes

Endnotes follow identical formatting standards as footnotes. They are collected, numbered and ordered, at the end of the paper. The title of that page is "Notes" and is before the Bibliography. Endnotes are single spaced entries with double-spaces between each entry. 

CMS Bibliography

CMS bibliographies must be alphabetized by authors' last names. The first line of entry is on the left margin, with all additional lines indented by either half an inch or 5 spaces. The format is identical to footnotes, except alphabetized with the author's name in inverse order.

Bibliography entries are single-spaced, with double-spacing between entries. Occasionally, professors may require double-spacing throughout both entries and between different entries.  

Sample Chicago Style Bibliography

 Chicago Style Bibliography Page

CMS Files and Downloads

The following table lists all of our available templates, guides and supplemental materials.

AssetFile TypeDownload
CMS TemplateMS Word 2007/8.docx file
Sample CMS PaperPDF.pdf file
CMS FootnotesPDF.pdf file

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