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Research Paper on Globalization and Development

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    Globalization has impacted the entire world and it is truly an irreversible facet of human history. This sample research paper from Ultius explains what it is and some background.

    What is Globalization?

    Globalization can be defined as a system of interaction or increasing global relationships between cultures, people, and economic activities among the countries of the world. Globalization in its simpler form refers to conglomerate exchange of languages, ideas, and cultures. Behaviour or impacts of Globalization differ from country to country having a demarcation between developed countries like Britain and developing countries (Albrow & King, 1990). Some critics allege that it has been footing down the cultural values and increasing conflicts between two nations. Globalization is a double-edged sword as it impacts and affects all generations of people, economically, politically, environmentally, and culturally. While Globalization has its benefits-millions of people around the world are now more empowered because of global interconnectedness-there are still many problems that can and already have risen from cultural and economic development around the world.

    The First Stages of Globalization: It’s Not that New!

    The historical origin of the process of Globalization is debatable as in common usage refers to late twentieth century but some scholars regard it as having ancient history. One can confirm this by observing the trade patterns between the empires in ancient times. Some examples such as Silk Road between eastern world and Ottoman Empire, trade links between Roman Empire and India can be cited. Another stage of Globalization began during the Islamic age with the sharing of knowledge, technology, and trade in agriculture. From the beginning of 15th century with the advent of maritime trade and colonisation of countries Globalization became much developed even impacting cultures around the world (Waters, 1995). Globalization took its modern form in 19th century with the European nation’s conquest of the world and industrial revolution in Europe, where in which the colonised countries became the consumers of the exports from European nations and the colonised countries mere the suppliers of raw materials. Thus industrialisation has led to the Globalization of the world. Institutions such as World Bank, IMF, and WTO laid the foundations for the growth of the phenomena facilitating Free Trade all over the world (Scholte, 2005)

    Positive aspects of Globalization

    Neoliberals believe in advocating free trade, economic liberalisation and open market. They assert that for gaining higher material wealth, economic and political freedom in the developed countries where capitalism and democracy are the two ends - Globalization is the acceptable and beneficial method, since Globalization spreads the very concept of capitalism and liberalism (Bhagwati, 2004). Moreover, many demographic segments of the society rely on positive aspects of Globalization. These positive aspects include increased competition, employment, investment and capital flows, foreign trade, spread of technical know-how, spread of culture, spread of education, and also it poses legal and ethical effects and development of various organisations such as Organisations for Environmental and Social concerns. All the above form a basis for development and integration of developed countries and developing countries.

    Impact of Globalization in Britain 

    In the contemporary world the role of youth is very much for a nation’s future as it has been underplaying in the field of politics, economy etc. Therefore the functioning of the government which in terms depends on the policies it has chosen such as Globalization, Privatization will directly impact the younger generation or youth in the country (Dollfus, 1997). UK is considered as one of the globalized economies in the world. As gates are lifted, most of the developed countries have entered into UK to take the advantage of deregulated financial market. The positive trade environment with other countries helped UK to increase the national output (Gordon, 2004). 

    • Globalization has helped Britain in acquiring high levels of Foreign Direct investments (FDIs) both inward and outward i.e. investment in other countries. Britain has been a preferential venue for overseas direct investment. 
    • Rising trend of Britain’s imports penetration: Globalization allowed Britain to penetrate into markets where it earlier had differences at least in ethnicity or culture. It made great progress in making profits by investing in other markets maintaining a zero deficit (Pilger, 1999).
    • Globalization has been continually increasing the importance of Britain’s industries to have an edge and develop competitive advantage in industries having good a potential which improves the living standards of the people (much like the United States).
    • The impact of Globalization has forced Britain’s industries to make some structural changes. This has led to the loss of output and employment in long term in industries such as manufacturing industries and textile industries.

    Impact on British Government and Other Governments of Developing Countries

    With the Globalization on rise all over the world the government of Britain has been changing the corporate tax conditions and it has been reforming welfare systems and labor markets (Pilger, 2002). This has given Britain edge over other markets in which Globalization played a major role. Some economists argue that Globalization reduces the capability of the governments in developing countries to levy taxes because the corporations started increasing their profitability by reducing the tax payment and by moving their production plants to the countries offering low tax base. As Globalization lead to knowledge based product services, taxation of such has become even more complex (Grossman & Helpman, 1991). Not only the relative tax structures but the proximity of the markets in developing markets also plays a role in determining the flow of capital.

    Globalization and the Inflation-unemployment Trade-off

    Globalization has led to the increase of competitive pressure on British businesses in goods industries. One may question whether this has helped the common man in purchasing goods and is there any trade-off between inflation and unemployment. But in recent time cheaper prices for many manufactured goods and international commodities have certainly helped in controlling inflationary pressure.

    The present scenario of Globalization lays one of its emphases in determining long term economic growth which can be achieved by importance to human capital. The global demand for high value added manufacturing outputs and high skill services is very strong (Brown, Lauder & Ashton, 2008). Globalization teaches Britain economy, which has probably lost forever its relative and comparative advantage by manufacturing low value added products, to improve the flexibility of workforce and skills. Until and unless there is substantial improvement in skills, flexibility, and standard of products Britain cannot regain its position of cheaper and quality world class market. (Brown & Lauder, 2006)

    Impacts of Globalization on Youth in the Society

    Globalization can be referred as a concept of structured process which allows flow of goods, capital, knowledge and technology between individuals of the states from all over the world, resulting in economic convergence, high standards of living and considerable evolutionary changes in political, cultural, biological and economic aspects human race (Robertson, 1992). It is widely agreed that Globalization paves the way for enhanced integration of national economies into a single global economy through direct foreign investment, international trade and commerce; short term capital flows into the markets and exchange of human resources and technology across nations because of it. One can also say that human evolution has very much influenced by Globalization as it proliferates cultural production and heavy consumption through movies, music, television, and fashion. This is a very popular topic for contemporary economics writing and study. Internet growth has also helped and been helped by Globalization, changing contemporary trends that drive towards the way of single culture, desires, style of living.

    Globalization has paved way for many knowledge seekers and students to study in any part of the world and also opportunities of employment (Lee & Vivarelli, 2004). Some critics generally emphasize that globalization exacerbates unemployment, poverty, social exclusions, capitalism, environment deterioration, social divisions in most of the developing countries like Britain. All these impacts the youth directly. Dependency between national economies through trade and commerce will lead to an imbalance between nations attempting to dominate others. Thus, free trade which is a product of globalization creates a gap between poor nations and affluent nations. (Lauder, Brown & Ashton, 2008).

    Globalization in developing countries provides possibilities for interactions leading to convergence among people. It also fuels dispersion of capitalistic practices as more emphasis will be laid on market economy and consumerism which control the dynamics of the market. These issues or realities have a direct effect on younger generation. Generally youth will be in the midst of finding a means or a sense of identity for themselves and this process is altered because of intensification of economic and social relations in the global scenario due to globalization (Scholte, 2005).

    Too Much Consumerism Because of Globalization

    Globalization in general lays too much emphasis on consumerism where the families have to maintain a sufficient supply of financial or monetary resources in order to sustain and continue their participation in free market system (Dollfus, 1997). This enormous need for material and financial resources forces children and parents to engage in the intense income-generating efforts. In most of the developing countries, young people are being encouraged to provide and spend more time and effort on survival and cash oriented activities in order to get adapted to the rapid pace of the socio-economic living. The present competitive and rapid growing global economy offers most of the children an escape mechanism from poverty as well as an opportunity for many developing countries to exploit the citizens of their nation who are willing and capable to work since their economic survival mostly relies on world trade and foreign investments. As the young generation in this contemporary era does not want to limit them in single work culture, the possibility for them to extend their services in this globalized environment, which fosters an environment to learn different organization cultures and skill sets (Lee & Vivarelli, 2004). 

    Globalization Limits Public Investment in Social Service

    Globalization is said to be posing disadvantages to children and young people by limiting the public investment especially in social services and benefits (Waters, 1995). Globalization is meant to advance trade and commerce but not charity which is restricting capability of the governments in developing and poor nations to resort to the minimum levels of welfare endeavours for their states. Globalization facilitates privatization. Therefore privatization of the welfare services is promoted but this privatization restricts and thereby reduces access of poor people to quality oriented welfare services and leads to the growing gap between wealthy and the poor (Lee & Vivarelli, 2004).

    There are clear indications that decline in public expenditures on “social welfare, housing, education, health care, job creation, job training, child care, open space and recreation” in many parts of the United States and United Kingdom over the past twenty years (Stiglitz, 2002). This kind of lack of attention to public spaces and recreation make children and younger people depend more on technology for their leisure activities and entertainment needs through the means of television, music, movies, video games, and Internet. They are becoming isolated to their homes or their gadgets and are being deprived of opportunities to experience healthy development. Thus globalization which has a greater role in technological innovation has impacted a class of youth by hindering them from pursuing beneficial and developmental activities and on the other side geeks or the nerds of technology are lifting up the nation’s pride.

    Since globalization creates interdependency between different nations or economies around the world a small jolt in any nation in terms of its political, economic stabilities will have impacts over other nations also. The recent economic down turn or recession of 2008 can be sited as an example. 

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    Conclusion

    In the modern world, Globalization is at the core for both convergence and interdependence of political, social and economic relations. Like the two sides of a coin, it has both positive and negative impacts. The point of the sample research paper was to highlight the positive impacts are outweighing negative impacts, like the spread of diseases or viruses. Younger generation comprises of future world public servants, scientists etc. Thus, it is very crucial that they are to be prepared for the responsibility. There is a need to provide them with all the possible resources and opportunities in order to acquire knowledge, skills and confidence in facing future challenges. Thus, the concept of Globalization should mainly be meant for the youth which is the foundation of a country to the entire world. Therefore leaders of various nations needs to plan their internal as well as their foreign policies to the benefit of younger generation not only limited to their country but also on the broader sense to the entire world.

    References

    Albrow, M., & King, E. (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society. London: Sage Publications.

    Bhagwati, J. (2004). In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Brown, P., & Lauder, H. (2006). Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4 (1), 25-57.

    Brown, P., Lauder, H., & Ashton, D. (2008). Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy. European Educational Research Journal, 7 (2), 131-156. 

    Dollfus, O. (1997). Globalization, Families, and Communities in Europe. Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics Kokugakuin University. Retrieved April 4, 2012.

    Grossman, G. M., & Helpman, E. (1991). Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Gordon, P. (2004). Globalization: Europe's Wary Embrace. YaleGlobal. Retrieved April 4, 2012.

    Lauder, H., Brown, P., & Ashton, D. (2008). Globalisation, Skill Formation and the Varieties of Capitalism Approach. New Political Economy, 13 (1), 19-35. 

    Lee, E., & Vivarelli, M. (2004). Understanding Globalization, Employment and Poverty Reduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Pilger, J. (2002). The New Rulers of the World. Verso Books.

    Pilger, J. (1999). Hidden agendas London. Verso Books.

    Robertson, R. (1992). Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. SAGE Publications Ltd.

    Scholte, J. A. (2005). Globalization: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave.

    Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company

    Waters, M. (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.

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