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Doctoral Research Paper on Arsenic Contamination

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    Arsenic contamination within the country of Pakistan has become a reasonably important topic of debate due to the potential for dramatic negative consequences surrounding such realities within this region of the world. As this blog (written by a research paper service writer from Ultius) will show, this has historically been a growing threat for some time, as groundwater contamination has become a singular issue for many countries, most specifically in areas around Southeast Asia and in particular the nation of Pakistan.

    Due to the prevalence of infected groundwater areas in many parts of the world and around this region, much research has been committed towards establishing better methods of dealing with such instances of arsenic contamination. In addition, any future directives aimed at discovering any possible solutions to this pressing problem, including potential policy changes that might go about developing governmentally mandated behaviors towards that end, must be based on scientific principles of action.

    Additional information must therefore be provided not only through similar productive research methods such as this specific assignment’s completion, but also through governmentally mandated modes of actions. These actions, perhaps taking the form of regulation and better policy attainment, could potentially render the toxic exposure such arsenic contamination represents to not only citizens of Pakistan but also any others who might be thus exposed to these occurrences.

    Therefore, much of this research presented here has been the culmination of many developmental attributes, including the discovery of sizable methods aimed at curtailing incidents of contamination, as well as creating a direction forward to a better future for all those in need of clean drinking water. To that end, this research has been created, will be dedicated to, and contains many possible solutions at various governmental and scientific levels in order to solve this social issue.

    Determining arsenic contamination levels

    Determining the overall contamination of any given body of water, anywhere in the world, is generally a very complicated exercise over the course of a large survey process completed with sound research techniques. This has been of extreme importance during the process by which this research has undergone its various mandates of oversight in regard to discussing and determining how groundwater contamination in Pakistan impacts many variables.

    Some of these variables include specific health consequences of such poisoning, while still others have been constructed of underpinnings involved in the attempt at mitigating the harmful effects of such occurrences. Though these activities have largely been relegated towards the actions of governmental agencies tasked with the purpose of protecting their individual populations, this research has been created with the hope in mind of better understanding how this process of contamination functions in order to create a sizable overview for further study.

    This future study could possibly be developed in such a way as to create not only a social shift in attitude towards better appreciation for reducing the harmful impact of such arsenic contamination but also ultimately in creating sizable policy changes that will establish mandates of behavior for all those involved. An overview of such forces (i.e. causes of arsenic poisoning in various water supplies in this region of the world, followed by possible negative effects, finalized by potential solutions) has therefore been the primary driving reasons for this research development.

    Furthermore, there has been some research attributed towards the idea that much of the arsenic (as well as other toxic elements found in groundwater) has actually been the result of natural processes occurring within various ecosystems of these many nations. Regardless of the elements involved, however, this situation has become quite relevant for a number of reason and therefore this research has been created in order to develop not only an overview of the reality of arsenic contamination but also to possible generate sizable solutions based on evidence discovered throughout this project.

    History of arsenic

    Arsenic as a basic chemical has a long history of existence, usage, and unfortunately instances of contamination. In regards to Pakistan more specifically, this situation has been occurring for some time in various forms such as what has been discovered in a specific area of Pakistan, as well as a specific type of arsenic poisoning, which has been found in the arsenic hyper accumulating fern known as pteris vittata, which has been shown to actually combat the negative effects of arsenic (Basharat, Baig &Yasmin, 2016). Within this framework has come the development of this research’s primary aims: to first discovery how arsenic incidents have contaminated areas of Pakistan and second to discover methods of combating such instances of poisoning in order to improve conditions there.

    Furthermore, much of the research has been aimed at discovering the specific history of how this contaminant has spread across this region of the world. In particular, much has been considered in regards to the contamination of groundwater in the area around the nation of Bangladesh, which has been present since at least the early 1970s (Ahuja, n.d.).

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    This research, therefore, has been created with this historical context in mind, as well as the possible connotations of how this contamination has spread to other parts of Southern Asian countries and parts of Pakistan; which has of course been the primary area of concern in regard to this research’s main parameters of discovery. However, much consideration within this historical section of the research has been focused on occurrences within Southeast Asia, for this region of the world has experienced much contamination of its groundwater due to arsenic (Brammer & Ravenscroft, 2009). For this reason, the historical perspective gleaned from this section of the research has gone towards discovering more about this part of the world in order to remediate this situation.

    To that end, other sources of literature discovered for the purposes of this research have been examined in order to better equate the realities of what is currently taking place within the nation of Pakistan with the widespread contamination from arsenic poisoning in nearby countries and how it created this modern problem. Groundwater contamination within India, for example, has long been studied by various scientific agencies with the specific purpose of examining the detrimental effects of arsenic infected groundwater in West Bengal, India, finding that this issue has been present for some time.

    In addition, this groundwater contamination has expanded in recent years due to the development of greater influence of agricultural activities in this area (Bhowmick, Pramanik, Singh, Mondal, Chatterjee & Nriagu, 2018). As an agricultural problem, therefore, the historical perspective gleaned from this segment has been predicated on understanding the relationship between groundwater and human population growth rates in this region of the world.

    Furthermore, gaining a deeper meaning to this relationship has shaped much of the historical response to such contamination. For instance, as many people throughout the world have been heavily reliant on groundwater as a major source for their daily drinking water needs (Shankar, Shankar & Shikha, 2014), one could easily understand the pressing need for this research to continue to be investigated in order to arrive at some sort of reliable solution.

    There have been far too many developments in recent years in regards to finding such solutions that more need to be done in this respect. Other considerations within this framework of discussion might go further in explaining how this situation has arisen over the course of the last several decades but the more salient point to this research is the specific impact such arsenic contamination has had on Pakistan.

    Extent of arsenic contamination in Pakistan

    Unfortunately, there has been a long running correlation between arsenic contamination within the country of Pakistan. For instance, toxic elements within the water supplies of this country have long been attributed to the transference of such physical components (i.e. sources like arsenic) from one area such as groundwater into a more expansive and commonly held general location like a municipality where this water is introduced to the population (Arain, Kazi, Baig, Jamali, Afridi, Shah, Jalbani & Sarfraz, 2009).

    In effect, what this has done to the water supply in this country has been to create a reasonably negative potential for adverse health impacts. For example, many studies have clearly labeled such exposure as dangerous due to arsenic being classified as a carcinogen, as well as potentially being put into the air people in this country breathe because of the airborne particulate material being spread throughout these areas, more particularly in Lahore, Pakistan (Harrison, Smith, Pio & Castro, 1997). Consequently, this region of the world has become the subject of much research, speculation, and further study for the purposes of discovering more.

    In addition, various constraints and limitations of conventional methods completed by collecting samples from each and every water well (as well as also estimating the risk of Arsenic by doing predictive modeling), have also been completed in many respects by external experts’ sources. For example, if one has done the study by collecting samples from each and every well of the whole Pakistan then it might be possible that if they will repeat the sampling after some time and thus discover that the concentrations of arsenic may vary with the previous ones.

    This would most likely be due to the actual aquifers being diluted after flooding or precipitation. Or, this reality may be due to one of the two aquifers (either the shallow or the deep mixed one being examined) after an occurrence of collapsing. In addition, in a few areas like Lahore where critically high arsenic contamination is present may be due to the excessive and very much deep drilling activity.

    However, mainly the Arsenic problem is geogenic as in parts of Australia (Smith, Jankowski & Sammut, 2003), vertically in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China, and other countries. Therefore, much of this research has been predicated on discovering which factors are affecting the geogenic arsenic contamination in these and other areas of the world where it has been possible to examine.

    In Pakistan in particular, however, much of this research has been focused on for the purposes of greater discovery and insight. Statistically speaking, much research and evidential facts have gone into discovering exactly how deep the problem has gone within this country, especially in light of total exposure quantification. Many instances of exposure have already been discovered by authorities.

    For instance, the following represents a modicum of statistical data thus compiled:

    •    In Punjab, Pakistan, some estimates place the total number of exposed individuals at 20%, with the exposure levels being around 10 parts per billion (ppb) (Ahmad, Kahlown, Tahir & Pakistan, 2004).

    •    In nearby drinking water reservoirs, approximately 3% of the population has been exposed to arsenic levels at the staggering amount of 50 ppb (Ahmad et al., 2004).

    •    In the city of Sindh, the exposure has been recorded as even higher, with between 16% and 36% of the population receiving similar levels of arsenic in their drinking supplies (Ahmad et al., 2004).

    •    One recent study discovered that the “prevalence of arsenicosis confirmed presence of 40 cases in the study population giving a prevalence of 140/100,000 for established and borderline cases” (Ahmad et al., 2004, p. 459).

    •    This information has been confirmed through other research projects, which have discovered groundwater contamination in Sindh, Pakistan have been recorded at dramatically harmful levels (Baig, Kazi, Araina, Afridi, Kandhroa, Sarfraz, Jamal & Shaha, 2009).

    •    Another location in Pakistan of supreme interest has been two local water supplies, Manchar Lake Pakistan and Indus River, Paikistan, respectively, both of which have been tested for arsenic levels and local scientists used the HG AAS (Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) method to find the total amount of Arsenic present (Shaha, Kazi, Araina, Baiga, Afridi, Kandhroa, Khana & Jamali, 2009).

    •    The results obtained at this location were that although the arsenic levels found in fish at the Indus River were lower than that of Manchar Lake in total, both locations’ arsenic levels were considered above normal human-based levels for proper health-related outcomes (Shaha et al, 2009).

    Therefore, knowing that some semblance of research has already gone into discovering as much as possible about how the extent of arsenic (toxic chemical) exposure may have taken place already in the country of Pakistan could possibly assist with understand how to best approach possible solutions. In addition, although Pakistan has thus far been the primary location examined for the purposes of this research, additional information has been discovered in relation to this pressing concern and also certain ramification for the entire global network of groundwater. Taken as a whole, these and other concerns could amount to a globally endangerment of human life.

    This would be true due to the fact that if one is not able to receive the proper amount of high quality drinking water (or even water that would be considered livable), that person would thus be subjected to not only the negative consequences of dehydration but also many of the following items due to arsenic exposure. Additionally, much of the research devoted to this project has uncovered much about the consistent, deleterious, and overarching arsenic contamination that has been witnessed around the surrounding areas within and nearby Pakistan’s two primary provinces in this discussion. These two provinces have been Sindh and Punjab; respectively, and therefore the following segments of this research would be centered on the governmental agencies associated with these locations.

    Health consequences of arsenic exposure in Pakistan

    Due to the constant exposure to (and in many cases the actual ingestion of) arsenic, there are many negative health consequences for anyone unfortunate enough to experience this particular situation. There have been many studies of how exactly arsenic contamination has adversely affected the health of individuals and much of the research examined for the purposes of this academic assignment have been predicated on understanding this phenomenon more specifically in regards to drinking water.

    To that end, one valuable source examined has demonstrated the aspects of arsenic drinking water contamination through the specific lens of how groundwater contamination has negatively impacted the health of individuals living in Bangladesh, discovering that the single largest incident of arsenic poisoning occurred around the year 2000 (Yunus, Khan, Chowdhury, Milton, Hussain & Rahman, 2016). Though this discovery has been quite disturbing in many ways, it has also galvanized the research to attempt a deeper examination of these occurrences.

    Further details have thus been uncovered in regards to negative health consequences. To that end, much of this process pertaining to the research conducted here has been directed at discovering the actual physical consequences of arsenic contamination within the human body. This has yielded some dramatic results, including a consensus on the fact that a daily intake of a certain level of arsenic within drinking water in any given location can result in heightened risks of carcinogenic effects on the human body (Waqas, Shan, Khan, Nawaz, Rizwan, Saif-Ur-Rehman, Shakoor, Ahmed & Jabeen, 2017).

    Causing cancer is merely one of the many health risks associated with this phenomenon. Some additional examples have included the extended prevalence within the scientific community pertaining to the belief that arsenic consumption causes skin lesions and other non-carcinogenic adverse health effects associated with this chronic exposure (Kazia, Araina, Baiga, Jamalia, Afridia, Jalbanib, Sarfraza, Shaha & Niaza, 2009). Constant exposure to arsenic, including the consumption of this toxic chemical through drinking water, thus has a wide array of negative consequences.

    In many ways, this research has uncovered the actual concentration levels within the framework of location-based realities of these negative health effects. In that respect, the highest concentrations of contamination have been discovered in the areas around the Sindh and Punjab provinces, which has created a massive public health issue for those citizens who receive their drinking water in those locations (Sanjrani, Teshome, Mek, Sanjrani, Leghari, Moryani & Shabnam, 2017).

    This facet of the project’s primary discovery has therefore added a good deal of reasonable evidence towards establishing this main location as the focal point of further research modalities garnered to acquire additional resources to assisting a clean-up effort towards helping citizens in these areas to have higher quality drinking water. Thus, the added benefit of focusing on the location of Pakistan can hopefully improve health conditions there in regards to the populations being affected.

    Mitigation and technologies to reduce arsenic contamination

    Thankfully there are several scientifically mandated and constructed methods for the mitigation of arsenic within the drinking waters of this region of the world, as well as various technologies available for implementation to the savvy professional. One possible solution to this situation could be derived from deeper examinations of the groundwater being currently used by the populace and thus potentially affected by the arsenic contamination discussed throughout this research project.

    In that respect, much research has already been focused on examining such public groundwater reservoirs and the ability of many municipalities to clean up such incidents when conveyed towards understanding the relationship between groundwater and applicable city water supplies (Ahmad, Rafiq, Akram, Tasneem, Ahmad, Iqbal, & Sajjad, n.d). In a general sense, this could mean that a better system of examination of how cities in Pakistan receive their water supply might generate better results towards achieving healthier and less contaminated drinking and bathing water.

    There were many other mitigation techniques discovered throughout the research process as has been conducted thus far. For instance, some positive results towards such an end has been created using geoelectrical sounding and pumping tests to discover the potential water availability in order to better provide various municipalities within Pakistan and other cities with a clean and usable water supply (Akhter & Hasan, 2016). This solution might very well be utilized in certain instances whereas available resources are present, but most likely could serve as a starting off point of further inquiry.

    This in turn might be due to a lack of quality engineers to actual use such equipment, as well as a lack of quality forces aligned with such interests, or even a dearth of sizable resources needed to fulfill such missions of mitigation. In addition, this solution has also been seen as a relatively time-intensive exercise in most respects (Akhter & Hasan, 2016). Therefore, many of those individuals aligned with these mitigation factors might find alternative means to provide various Pakistani municipalities with better drinking water through other means.

    However, perhaps the first and most important step to mitigate the occurrence of arsenic contamination would be to take samples of the corresponding soil deposits and thus discover if arsenic residue (or greater qualities for that matter) might be present. The primary reason this facet of the research has been extremely helpful in determining proper solution-based methods for mitigation efforts is that the actual contamination of any given sample of soil has been due to the shifts and transference attributes because of sedimentary realities therein (Baig, Kazi, Arain, Shah, Sarfraz, Afridi, Kandhro, Jamali, & Khan, 2009).

    In a practical sense this has translated into a more geological focus in regards to how scientific oversight of this situation might move forward should direct action be taken at some point in the future. Hopefully this facet will be better developed during this time and be a strong factor towards people living in these conditions becoming better off in regards to their drinking water, as this is a quality of life issue for several million people.

    In order for populations to remain healthy, a high-quality amount of water must be provided for the people living in any given location. Cleaning their water supply up should be a primary focus for all relevant stakeholders in this respect. Another potentially mitigation technique that could possibly curtail such instances of arsenic contamination in Pakistan would be to discover how much contribution of this toxic load in the water actually comes from the air and the rainwater experienced in that area of the world (Farooqi, Masuda, & Firdous, 2007).

    Thankfully much research has been dedicated towards that end for some time, including taking samples of the ground in Pakistan’s most infected areas. For instance, some data derived from a study indicated that such pollution of the groundwater has come from three main areas: air pollutants, fertilizers, and household wastes (Farooqi, Masuda, & Firdous, 2007). This would seem to indicate the situation is much more complex than initially thought and thus greater emphasis on technology developments has been needed to solve this problem in a way that would reduce the contamination.

    Some forms of technology have at their most basic level the simple act of examining the available data points made public thus far. Others have gone much further in that they have accounted for actual physical techniques that have shown promise in reducing arsenic contamination in groundwater.

    Many of the following have been extremely instrumental in the reduction of arsenic in water:

    •    The use of zeolites, for example, has shown tremendous benefits towards reducing arsenic and other toxic chemicals due to their great absorption properties (Smith, Jankowski, & Sammut, 2003).

    •    In addition, using what is known as an orange absorption gel has been utilized in many instances and has provided a good barometer of positive results for future applications (Qureshi, Mangi, Mangi, Mangi, & Samo, 2014).

    •    Some other techniques, such as evaporation, co-precipitation, and oxidation efforts might be the only feasible technologies to employ in certain areas due to the highly expensive monetary commitment needed to combat the problems with contaminated water supplies in these areas of Pakistan (Luqman, Ahmed, Naudhani, Yousafzai, Raza, Saeed, & Javed, 2016).

    •    In addition to the absorption techniques and substances already described, some available simple forms of technology have included “desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of absorbents” could be a properly engaged method for handling groundwater corruption (Mondal & Garg, 2017).

    •    Another piece of applicable technology that could be put into active practice has involved the use of what is known as magnetic nanoparticles, which have shown significant progress towards refining, cleaning, and otherwise improving water supplies (Feng, Aldrich, Eksteen, & Arrigan, 2017).

    Obviously, there are many forms of technology available for usage in the mitigation of this problem and thus only the will to act and act swiftly is currently missing from many within this framework of discussion. Therefore, it will be the application and complete implementation of the technologies discussed that will hopefully provide these millions of people the proper type of clean water they deserve.

    Perhaps the most important aspect to this developmental position on finding a reliable solution to the arsenic contamination being experienced in this region has been the considerations for future debate; research related, policy mandated, and the creation of public health programs all designed to reduce the amount of arsenic in the groundwater supplies where many people live in Pakistan.

    Future directions for Pakistan's water problems

    Moving forward there must be a specific implementation plan that properly utilizes these specific mitigation techniques in order to properly forestall the potentially negative effects of arsenic in the water supply.  In that respect, the following segments of the research completed thus far may hopefully present reasonable solutions towards developing a more sustainable model of providing quality drinking water to the citizens of Pakistan.

    The people of the surrounding areas will no doubt benefit a great deal as well, for the groundwater issues as discussed within this exercise have created the pressing need to further a more comprehensive model of eliminating the negative and harmful effects of this situation. Furthermore, due to the legitimate concern of adverse health effects such arsenic contamination might have on human beings, this future focus could result in the saving of many lives and an increase in public and governmental awareness.

    Research into cleaning up the arsenic in Pakistan's water supply

    Much research has been put into practice outside the realms of only theoretical models that have been discussed throughout this particular project. Most of this research, for example, has been predicated on understanding not only the historical perspective of what arsenic contamination has meant for the people of Pakistan that have been exposed but also what might be done for the “clean-up” phase of any given situational mandates towards that end.

    For example, one source reviewed for this project outlined the possibilities when governmental agencies use what is known as Quaternary stratigraphy and mineral analysis which can enable a deeper understanding of how aquifers are impacted by possible arsenic and other contaminations within various water supplies (Shamsudduha, Uddin, Saunders, & Lee, 2008). In many ways, this level of high-quality scientific analysis could in fact reduce the potential for future contamination due to arsenic. Whatever form this research takes, however, must come with the added caveat of resources being put to good use in actually solving the problems associated with the arsenic contamination taking place.

    Other research modalities have been predicated on similar standards of actionable examination of available water supplies. For example, greater levels of cooperation between existing governmental agencies should be enacted, as this research-based model has shown sizable results in areas of China where drinking water contamination has occurred (Advanced technologies for arsenic removal, n.d.).

    If future research is to be galvanized at this level, however, a greater amount of resources must be allotted through a combination of governmental aid, policy creation or development, as well as heightened public health consciousness aimed at sustainable models of behavior. Without these and other factors present, it will most likely be quite difficult if not impossible to fulfill the promise of providing better drinking water for these individual Pakistani. That would be unfortunate, as these individuals deserve to have their water supply come from a source that would be free from arsenic or any other type of toxic substance that would negatively impact their health status.

    Policy levels on water in Pakistan

    Obviously in order to fully grasp the situation as presented within this research, as well as ultimately accomplish something positive in that respect, some measure of change at the political level must be completed to enact policies to curtail such contamination in the future. One of the most essential aspects of creating policies would be the creation of affordable technologies made available to the public at equitable costs.

    One policy change that could establish this reality could be to install the various indigenous technologies (simple and affordable ones) that have shown a reduction of arsenic content in various water supplies as tested by the scientific processes therein (Luqman, Rana, Naudhani, & Javed, 2016). Having this type of policy, whereas older, more established, and cheaper methods of reducing arsenic and other toxins in the water are put into active practice, could also have the added benefit of galvanizing the local populace into taking consistent action.

    Oftentimes individuals are fearful of change, highly development technologies they do not understand, and methods of sustainability they have little to no experience with. Putting into practice a policy based on the indigenous methods that have been used for decades, even centuries in that part of the world to reduce arsenic and other toxins in the water supply would be something considered achievable to many local workers who might have experience with evaporation, oxidation, and other techniques to remove the contamination (Luqman et al., 2016).

    Furthermore, local resources would more properly be utilized by initiating such a governmentally sponsored policy. Thus, instead of harming or taxing the local economy by attempting to finance highly technical solutions, the local businesses there would receive a stimulation based on the work completed. This could then create a self-sustaining system that would continue to move forward, both stimulating the local economy and cleaning the water.

    Therefore, the primary policy enacted would be to create a synergistic effect between these various indigenous techniques and the use of any newly created technologies that might fit into such practices at an affordable level. This could alleviate much of the tension between forces, improve workflow therein, and decrease the amount of apprehension on the part of those workers involved how might not have the same level of expertise of those working for any local academic institution needed to supervise the entirety of the program.

    In addition, such activities being monitored by outside agencies could be promoted through the use of quality social media channels, local scholastic channels, and other modalities aligned with the development of better quality drinking water opportunities in this region. Furthermore, such supervising agencies would then work in close concert with other governmental divisions tasked with the continuation of such policies enactments.

    Creating policy change at the governmental level usually means developing an actionable list of items to be enacted through a rigorous plan of behavior modifications. In turn, these changes can shift the current attitude of the populace, as well as realign the activities of any situational entities failing to act in line with established solutions. While these shifts and actual policy changes will take not only resources but the commitment of all relevant stakeholders, these individuals must understand the stakes involved.

    There are many that would argue fervently that this groundwater contamination due to high arsenic levels has in fact become a global issue because of the widespread potential for water being turned toxic (Malik, Khan, Mahmood, Nasreen, & Bhatti, 2009). If placed in this context effectively, one might go about developing policy changes that can reduce if not eliminate completely the negative impact of arsenic contamination.

    Public health programs aimed at helping those with arsenic contamination

    Many of the policies that have been presented will of course be structured so that they can enable the positive reenactment of individuals’ health in regards to recovering from the negative effects of arsenic contamination wherever found. For that matter, whatever solution might be chosen must first be established through the creation of sound decision making process that come with the directives outlined previously in this research (Singh, Taylor, & Su, 2017).

    All relevant stakeholders aligned with their positional duties towards creating more sizable change modalities including public health programs must first be established with an understanding on why certain decisions are made. For instance, a public health program created to reduce the negative association one might have due to arsenic exposure should be centered on raising public awareness of the problem, creating a higher quality of drinking water, and assisting those harmed by such arsenic contamination in getting the medical care they require (Singh, Taylor, & Su, 2017).

    Regardless of the form it might take, such as an online referral program, a public assistance initiative for developing more information, or a governmental outreach program, these systems must have resources, knowledge of the problem, and an overarching willingness to help people.

    These and other programs obviously come at a cost but if aligned with the previously mentioned modalities involving the use of indigenous applications towards reducing the amount of groundwater arsenic contamination. Therefore, any public program enacted should be completed with this facet in mind in order to sustain itself over the course of the execution needed to fully create a positive change. In fact, the only conceivable way any reasonable program for the public would actually be sustained would be through the community itself; as members of Pakistan’s most infected areas must work together, with governmental assistance, to create a dynamic system of sustainable positive growth in this vein.

    In many ways, this type of systemic public program, initiated by the government of Pakistan as well as surrounding municipalities affected by arsenic contaminated water could reserve the systemic problems now taking place there. A systemic problem must have a systemic solution in order to solve the many inherent difficulties within the entire paradigm of working components taking place in the groundwater, ancillary mechanisms, and other factors that have contributed to the current woeful state in regards to arsenic contamination.

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    Perhaps the single most important aspect to this current problem in regards to having these public programs in place as soon as possible is the expected population growth in this national region. For instance, due to many predictions about how Pakistan and surrounding regions are expected to grow in the upcoming years and even decades, having an adequate safe water supply will be critical to this growth (Malik et al., 2009).

    In this respect, the entire future of the region, if not the entire surrounding continent, could be negatively impacted by this continued arsenic contamination. Understanding how negatively the water might affect the people, the growing population, and the entire future of the region could galvanize the community around the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan into taking decisive action. Furthermore, since the very nature of health, even happiness, and future growth of a specific population segment has become threatened due to the continued contamination from arsenic infection in the water supply, this issue must be dealt with in a direct, actionable manner by government agencies and the community.

    Conclusions

    Arsenic poisoning has become a pressing concern within the nation of Pakistan and in fact for many parts of the world. Due to the toxic environment such contamination has created in these and other areas, including the development of various health-related complications to many citizens, some form of oversight and additional research should be enacted in order to help restore the water supplies of these areas to a more normal level.

    This has been an extremely challenging yet potentially rewarding part of this research, for establishing a firm decision-making process at the highest levels of the governments in charge of maintaining public health in Pakistan could bring about a great deal of change at the policy level. In addition, creating standards of testing, which has been recently buoyed by the development of various forms of technology, could also assist with the process of creating true sustainable goals within this epoch of current global focus on achieving a better quality of life for all.

    If these and other changes are not put into active practice at the local and even regional level, much hardship and developmental challenges to Pakistan will continue to be experienced by many local citizens who would suffer unduly.

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