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APA Style In-Text Citations

APA format follows a method called "author-date" for properly constructing in-text citations.

In-text citations must have the last name of the author followed by the year of publication. Likewise, a full bibliographical reference must be included in the References page at the end of the paper. For paraphrasing, sources must be referenced in the format above. When constructing an in-text citation involving a short, direct quote from a publication, include the author, year of publication, and page number of the reference provided. Shown below:

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date (With Signal Phrase) According to Powell (2004), "it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" (p. 65).

If we do not use a signal phrase to lead the quotation, we must use the format shown below:

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Without Signal Phrase) He stated that "it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action"(Powell, 2004, p. 65).

If you are offering a summary or paraphrase of an author's work, be sure to reference the author's last name and year of publication. A page number is recommended per APA guidelines, but not required.

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Summary or Paraphrase) According to Powell (2004), it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action (p. 65).

When citing a work by two or more authors, both authors should be recognized in the signal phrase.

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Two Authors) According to Powell and Granger (2004), "it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" (p. 65).

Be sure to use the word "and" in the text itself, and the ampersand "&" in the parentheses.

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Three to Five Authors, In-text) According to Powell, Granger, and Smith (2004), "it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" (p. 65).
In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Three to Five Authors, Parenthetical) According to the authors, "it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" (Powell, Granger, & Smith, 2004, p. 65).

If a work has six or more authors, follow the above format, but simply add "et al." to the signal phrase or parenthetical citation.

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Six or More Authors, Parenthetical) According to the authors, "it is important to note that the Court did not decide against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" (Powell et al. 2004, p. 65).

Often, you will encounter works by unknown authors. These are works that have no listed author, and can only be referenced by their title.

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Unknown Author) It is important to note that the Court did not decide "against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" ("Affirmative Action in Universities", 2004).

When citing electronic documents, use the same author-date style as above.

In-Text Citation Example: Author-Date Style (Electronic Document) It is important to note that the Court did not decide "against the University because of its adherence to affirmative action" (Powel, 2004, p. 65).

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